Closely supervising young offenders, instead of incarcerating them, did not increase the youth crime rate or the risk to public safety. Similar programs have since been adopted in 110 jurisdictions in 27 states and the District of Columbia. According to a new study from the foundation, the results have been astonishing: Many jurisdictions have managed to cut the number of children in detention by half or more; in many, the youth crime rate has declined. . . .
Communities that have been most faithful to the new model have registered the most impressive results, with some districts locking up only about a quarter of the number of youngsters as before. These efforts show that it is possible to treat children humanely without compromising public safety and deserve to be replicated nationwide.
I don't know this work well, but this is a critically important issue.
The most important predictor of whether a child will become a "delinquent" is whether this child has been sent to detention.
This work is sponsored by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, and more information is here (use the headings in the left-hand column to navigate this information). See discussion of results here.
Again, focusing on education and pedagogy as a solution to "educational" problems is, I believe, a recipe for defeat.